Broda, R. (1987). Gamma spectroscopy analysis of hot particles
from the Chernobyl fallout. Acta Physica Polica. B18. pg. 935-950.
Jaracz, P., Mirowski, S., Trzcinska, A, Isajenko, K.,
Jagielak, J., Kempisty, T. and Jozefowicz, E.T. (1995). Calculations and
measurements of 154Eu and 155Eu in "fuel-like" hot
particles from Chernobyl fallout. J. Environ. Radioactivity. 26(1).
"Highly inhomogeneous distribution of Chernobyl fallout
in Poland was one of the surprises contributing to serious difficulty in
early estimates of the situation." (pg. 935).
Ground level activity was observed to 360,000 Bq/m2.
Ground deposition hot spots were observed in the Masurian
Lakes region as small as 30 cm in diameter with radioactivity 20 times
higher than that in the larger areas surrounding them. This could have
arisen as a result of erosion and washout of hot particles.
Extensive deposition of hot particles was noted with some
areas having one particle (+100 Bq) per ten square meters.
Intense background radiation hindered the hot particle
search in the Krakow area.
One hot particle was nearly pure cerium; another had activity
levels of 237,900 Bq of 103Ru.
"Extensive isotopic and activity ratio analysis of hot
particles radionuclides in this report... gives extensive information about
the age and fuel composition about the Chernobyl reactor and the processes
taking place during the accident." (pg. 949).
This is a landmark article in the literature of hot particle
emissions. See the Poland listing for additional data from this article.
Raunemaa, T., Lehtinen, S., Saari, H. and Kulmala, M.
(1987). 2-10 µm sized hot particles in Chernobyl fallout to Finland.
J. Aerosol. Sci. 18(6). pg. 693-696.
154Eu and 155Eu behave similarly
to the nonvolatile radioisotopes 95Zr and 95Nb in
hot particles (pg. 84), with small fractionation as compared to the large
fractionation of 137Cs and 106Ru.
Saari, H., Luokkanen, S., Kulmala, M., Lehtinen, S. and
Raunemaa, T. (1989). Isolation and characterization of hot particles from
Chernobyl fallout in Southwestern Finland. Health Physics. 57(6).
The first radioactivity noted in surface air was due to
sedimenting of hot particles when the main plume stayed airborne at high
elevations; most hot particle deposition was in SW parts of Finland. (pg.
Scots Pine Needles were used as bioindicators for hot
particle distribution; typical peak concentration activity levels: 144Ce:
63 Bq per particle; 141Ce: 132 Bq; 103Ru: 108 Bq;
106Ru: 6.7 Bq; 95Zr: 126 Bq; 95Nb: 130
Sandalls, F.J., Segal, M.G. and Victorova, N. (1993).
Hot particles from Chernobyl: A review. J. Environ. Radioactivity.
18(1). pg. 5-22.
Three types of activity composition were found in airborne
hot particles from Chernobyl: The most common type contained 141Ce,
144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb; the second type
also included 103Ru and 106Ru; and the third type
contained 103Ru and 106Ru only.
Two types of particles noted:
Particle size ranges: 0.5 to 30 µm (Minsk).
Shubert, P. and Behrand, U. (1987). Investigations of
radioactive particles from the Chernobyl fall-out. Radiochimica Acta.
41. pg. 149-155.
"Mono or bielemental, since only one or two radionuclides
were detected by gamma spectroscopy."
Particles or fragments of uranium oxide fuel containing
a range of fission products found in fuel but often somewhat depleted in
the non-volatile elements, such as sodium, cesium and ruthenium."
Tcherkezian, V., Shkinev, V., Khitrov, L. and Kolesov,
G. (1994). Experimental approach to Chernobyl hot particles. J. Environ.
Radioactivity. 22(2). pg. 127-140.
Particles with high specific activity were investigated
in Poland, Greece and Germany; many had a high proportion of 103Ru
Hot particles were noted from NE Poland with activity
levels up to 139,000 Bq of 103,106Ru. 106Ru ratios
were from 4.42 to 8.06.
van der Veen, J., van der Wijk, A., Mook, W.G. and de
Meijer, R.J. (1986). Core fragments in Chernobyl fallout. Nature.
323. pg. 399-400.
Hot particles contribution to the total activity in the
30 km zone was found to be not less than 65%.
Linear size range: 0.5 to 100 µm.
Core fragment hot spots measured in trousers and shoes
by Dutch researchers of travelers returning from Kiev and Minsk... Gamma
activity in hot spots to 850 Bq with smaller peaks of alpha emitting 42Cm,
239,240Pu, 243,244Cm, 238Pu and possibly